BIBLIA HEBRAICA ET GRAECA (Editio princeps)
the Holy Scripture we would not seek thoughts
of a writer, but the holy will of God. His will is not found by
the human efforts, but was revealed often entirely regardless of
the accepting attitude of its hearers or readers or too far ahead
of it. Such a will of God is written precisely in the Holy Scripture.
As a light in the darkness, its value has been enlightened also
in other degree than that showed in the reductionism of the liberal
arts. All truths involved in the written Word of God is referred
to the developed values of the after-created, high-advanced autonomous
system made of the divine skill. Even the free will of all
creatures within it is only a form of the divine grace which is
from the beginning ever poured by the mighty power of God. The imperative
relation between God and the created world means a metonymic illustration
of his continued process of history.
'Scriptura Sacra' or 'Biblia Hebraica et Graeca' was attempted to
return to the contemporary features of the original texts, retroactively
in order to read the purest texts in all points. Although this 'Veteris
Testamenti Biblia Sacra' depends upon the Leningrad Codex in its
foundation, it was collated by old papyri of LXX, NT, and Qumran
materials. The vowel signs of letters and Masoretic notes are omitted
for readers to find some intrinsic features of the original texts.
The original pronunciations may be now recovered by their high-creative
studies on the old Semitic languages (Eblaitic, Old Akkadian, Ugaritic
late 1st century before the reign of the Emperor Domitian
all, P46 well
reflects the typical orthography of the early Roman period, especially
that of the reign period of the Emperors, Tiberius and Tiberius
Claudius. But in spite of such a sufficient evidence about the original
does not mean the original text of the Apostle Paul, because there
is a calligraphical omission ( Gal. 1:11) which occurs as
a less than frequent custom3) in the rapid
copies. This editor suggests this omission already existed in the
'Vorlage' of our copy or occurred in the process copied acutely.
1) In detail, cf. Young-Kyu Kim, 'Paleographical Dating P46 to the Late First Century', Biblica 69, 1988, 248-257; Idem., On the Early Papyri of the New Testament, Seoul 1999 (written in Korean); Idem., Compendium Theologiae Systematicae I, Seoul 2000, 129-132. The new dating of the mentioned New Testament papyri was paleographically noted also earlier in the editor's letter to Prof. Dr. Ph. W. Comfort(15 July, 1990).
2) P47 appears to be of considerably early date, especially in the last stroke of the Eta, the second stroke of the Upsilon and the first, strongly rounded stroke of the Tau (see l.13, f.10r; l.3, f.7r). The Beta, giving an impression of the late 2nd century, is still found in PSI VII 1285 (ca. the reign of Domitian or Trajan), P. Bremer 5 (AD 117-119) and P.Oxy. XLVI 3279 (AD 148/9). For the editor's dating, consider B.M.Pap. 131 (the second hand, terminus post quem AD 78/9), P.Oxy. II, 211 (until the reign of Trajan), P. Oxy. II, 270 (AD 94), P. Oxy. VI 853 (terminus ad quem AD 131/2), P. Berlin 11634 (terminus ad quem AD 168/9), P. Florence I 61 (AD 85), P. Princeton 147 (AD 87/88), P.Oxy. Inv 30 4 B 35/L [1-2] a (AD 87/8), P.Heid. IV 327 (AD 99 !!), P. Merton 13 (AD 98-102), P.Mich. Inv. 3164 (AD 141), P.Gand Inv.(= SB III 6951, terminus post quem AD 142-4), P.Berol 6849 (= P.Gr.Berol 24, AD 148), BGU XIII, 2229 (AD 152/3), P. Gen II 106 (AD 153/4), P.Heid. IV 319 (AD 162). P47 is apparently earlier than P27, which the ed. prin. held to be in an hand 'of much the same characters' as P20. But these show no exact resemblance. The similar styles to be compared to P27 are widely observed: P.Ryl. II 154 (AD 66), P. Mich. Inv. 4719 (AD 81-96), P. Gr. Berol. 22a (AD 119), PSI V 446 (AD 133-136), P. Oxy. III 473 (AD 138-160), P. Wisconsin II 81 (AD 143), BGU XIII, 2229 (AD 152/3), P.Tebt. Tait 46 (terminus post quem AD 159), P. Mich. 532 (AD 181/2), P. Oxy. XLII 3076 (AD 225). P27 may be assigned rather to the second century than the early 3rd century.
3) For example, cf. , in the published epistle of the Emperor Claudius (AD 41) (H. I. Bell, Jews and Christians in Egypt, Westport 1972, 2¡3, l.64).
4) Cf. Young-Kyu Kim, On Orthography of the Early 1st Century as it Occurs in the Documents of Tryphon Family (AD 20¡59), 1991 (written in Korean).
5) Cf. Henry A. Steen, 'Les Clich s pistolaires dans les Lettres sur Papyrus Grecques', Classica et Mediaevalia I, 1938, 142-143.
6) About examples of the 1st century. cf. E.G. Turner & P.J. Parsons, Greek Manuscripts of the Ancient World, Bulletin Supplement 46, London 1987, introduction 7, note 28.
7) See plates in: G. Cavallo, Libri scritture scribi a Ercolano, a Supplement of Cronache Ercolanesi, 13/1983. But there is highly some doubt about his dating of a few papyri assigned to the IIIrd century B.C.
Editor's note on the Biblia Hebraica
discovery of historical realism would not refer to all of the truth.
The theological truth is, as we are convinced only firmly related
to the will of God declared in the Holy Scripture. Nevertheless,
the historical realities mean the objective basis of such truths,
which none denies himself. All archeological evidences, of course,
could not indicate the historical realities in detail. There are
even then always irrevocable factors in the historical texts. Our
Biblia Hebraica reflects in letters and orthographic features such
in situ indisputable circumstances.
collation of our texts with Leningrad Codex is carried out by Rev.
Sung-Ki Min, Rev. Sung-Chan Lim, Rev. Ji-Soo Jung, Rev. Yo-Suk Jung,
Lic. Hyun-Ju Bai, Rev. Nam-Kyu Lee, Mr. Ho-Seok Eom. Rev.
Nam-Kyu Lee at first contributed to computer data of our texts.